SelecTree: Tree Detail
Photo Locations: Oahu, HI, Cal Poly State University - San Luis Obispo, CA, Los Angeles County Arboretum - Arcadia, CA, Quail Arboretum - Encinitas, CA and Ontario, CA
This tree is smog and saline tolerant; its wood resembles that of oak. This is the most widely grown species in California, commonly used as a windbreak. The name C. equisetifolia is often incorrectly misapplied to this tree, however the foliage is coarser and more upright than C. equisetifolia. Casuarina cunninghamiana has a HPWRA (Hawaii Pacific Weed Risk Assessment) score of 12 (High Risk).
Cal-IPC (California Invasive Plant Council) classifies the invasiveness of C. equisetifolia, often sold as this plant, as watch.
Native to Australia.
Trees may be referred to as male or female.
A Casuarina cunninghamiana in Los Angeles is registered as a California Big Tree. It measures 73 feet high, with a trunk circumference of 173 inches and a crown spread of 61 feet.
Additional Common Names
RIVER SHE-OAK, BEEFWOOD, AUSTRALIAN PINE, HORSETAIL TREE
Erect or Spreading and requires ample growing space.
Conical or Oval Shape.
Has Evergreen foliage.
Height: 70 feet.
Width: 30 feet.
Growth Rate: 24 to 36 Inches per Year.
Longevity 50 to 150 years.
Leaves Needle-like, Gray Green, No Change, Evergreen.
Flowers Inconspicuous. Flowers in Fall. Has either male or female flowers (dioecious). Trees may be sold as male or female.
Brown Cone, Small (0.25 - 0.50 inches), fruiting in Spring.
Bark Dark Gray to Brown, Fissured.
Shading Capacity Rated as Moderate in Leaf.
Litter Issue is Dry Fruit.
Tree Site Conditions & Constraints
Sunset Zones 8, 9 and 12 - 24; H1, H2.
USDA Hardiness Zones 9 - 10.
Exposure Full Sun to Partial Shade.
Wet to Dry Soil.
Loam or Sand Texture.
Slightly Acidic to Highly Alkaline Soil pH.
Salinity Tolerance is Good to Moderate Inland and Moderate on Coast.
Seaside Tolerance is Good in Mild Zone.
Pests & Disease Information
Susceptible to Phytophthora and Root Rot.
Health, Safety & Environmental Concerns
Branch Strength Rated as Medium.
Root Damage Potential Rated as Low.
Allergy Health Hazard.
Special Uses & Values
Cite this tree:
SelecTree. "Casuarina cunninghamiana Tree Record." 1995-2020. Apr 6, 2020.
< https://selectree.calpoly.edu/tree-detail/casuarina-cunninghamiana >