SelecTree: Tree Detail

IRONWOOD
Casuarina equisetifolia

Casuarina equisetifolia Casuarina equisetifolia Casuarina equisetifolia Casuarina equisetifolia Casuarina equisetifolia Casuarina equisetifolia Casuarina equisetifolia Casuarina equisetifolia Casuarina equisetifolia Casuarina equisetifolia Casuarina equisetifolia Casuarina equisetifolia Casuarina equisetifolia Casuarina equisetifolia Casuarina equisetifolia

Photo Locations: Hilo and Maui, HI, National Arboretum - Washington, D.C., Palo Alto, CA, Westwood, CA and Los Angeles County Arboretum - Arcadia, CA

General Notes

This plant is weedy. We do not recommend planting it in Hawai’i.

This is a fast-growing, evergreen tree with pendulous, grey-green branches. It is the most widely grown species in the Pacific Islands; other species are only occasionally found. It’s a common species along the immediate coast. The dense wood of this tree is used for shingles and fencing, and is said to make excellent hot-burning firewood. Casuarina equisetifolia has a HPWRA (Hawai'i Pacific Weed Risk Assessment) score of 21 (High Risk).

Native to Australia, Burma, Malaysia, and French Polynesia.

Family: Casuarinaceae

Additional Common Names

HORSETAIL TREE, IRONWOOD, AUSTRALIAN PINE TREE, AGOHO PINE, SHEOAK, POLYNESIAN IRONWOOD, BEEFWOOD, WHISTLING PINE, AUSTRALIAN OAK, SWAMP OAK, TOA

Tree Characteristics

Erect or Spreading and requires ample growing space.

Conical or Rounded Shape.

Has Evergreen foliage.

Height: 40 - 65 feet.

Width: 20 feet.

Growth Rate: 36 Inches per Year.

Longevity 50 to 150 years.

Leaves Needle-like, No Change, Evergreen.

Flowers Inconspicuous. Green. Flowers in Fall.

Brown or Red Cone, Small (0.25 - 0.50 inches), fruiting in Spring.

Bark Dark Brown, Dark Gray or Light Gray, Fissured.

Shading Capacity Rated as Dense in Leaf.

Litter Issue is Dry Fruit.

Tree Site Conditions & Constraints

Sunset Zones 8, 9 and 12 - 24; H1, H2.

USDA Hardiness Zones 9 - 10.

Exposure Full Sun to Partial Shade.

Wet to Dry Soil.

Drought tolerant.

Loam or Sand Texture.

Slightly Acidic to Highly Alkaline Soil pH.

Salinity Tolerance is Good Inland and on Coast.

Seaside Tolerance is Good in Moderate Zone.

Pests & Disease Information

Susceptible to Armillaria, Phytophthora and Root Rot.

Health, Safety & Environmental Concerns

Branch Strength Rated as Medium.

Root Damage Potential Rated as Low.

Allergy Health Hazard.

Attracts Birds.

Cite this tree:
SelecTree. "Casuarina equisetifolia Tree Record." 1995-2020. Sep 29, 2020.
< https://selectree.calpoly.edu/tree-detail/casuarina-equisetifolia >

This tree is not part of the SelecTree Nursery Connection. If you would like to see this tree listed, or know of a nursery that sells it, please contact us at ufei@calpoly.edu.