SelecTree: Tree Detail
Photo Locations: Hilo and Maui, HI, National Arboretum - Washington, D.C., Palo Alto, CA, Westwood, CA and Los Angeles County Arboretum - Arcadia, CA
This plant is weedy. We do not recommend planting it in Hawai’i.
This is a fast-growing, evergreen tree with pendulous, grey-green branches. It is the most widely grown species in the Pacific Islands; other species are only occasionally found. It’s a common species along the immediate coast. The dense wood of this tree is used for shingles and fencing, and is said to make excellent hot-burning firewood. Casuarina equisetifolia has a HPWRA (Hawai'i Pacific Weed Risk Assessment) score of 21 (High Risk).
Native to Australia, Burma, Malaysia, and French Polynesia.
Additional Common Names
HORSETAIL TREE, IRONWOOD, AUSTRALIAN PINE TREE, AGOHO PINE, SHEOAK, POLYNESIAN IRONWOOD, BEEFWOOD, WHISTLING PINE, AUSTRALIAN OAK, SWAMP OAK, TOA
Erect or Spreading and requires ample growing space.
Conical or Rounded Shape.
Has Evergreen foliage.
Height: 40 - 65 feet.
Width: 20 feet.
Growth Rate: 36 Inches per Year.
Longevity 50 to 150 years.
Leaves Needle-like, No Change, Evergreen.
Flowers Inconspicuous. Green. Flowers in Fall.
Brown or Red Cone, Small (0.25 - 0.50 inches), fruiting in Spring.
Bark Dark Brown, Dark Gray or Light Gray, Fissured.
Shading Capacity Rated as Dense in Leaf.
Litter Issue is Dry Fruit.
Tree Site Conditions & Constraints
Sunset Zones 8, 9 and 12 - 24; H1, H2.
USDA Hardiness Zones 9 - 10.
Exposure Full Sun to Partial Shade.
Wet to Dry Soil.
Loam or Sand Texture.
Slightly Acidic to Highly Alkaline Soil pH.
Salinity Tolerance is Good Inland and on Coast.
Seaside Tolerance is Good in Moderate Zone.
Pests & Disease Information
Susceptible to Armillaria, Phytophthora and Root Rot.
Health, Safety & Environmental Concerns
Branch Strength Rated as Medium.
Root Damage Potential Rated as Low.
Allergy Health Hazard.
Cite this tree:
SelecTree. "Casuarina equisetifolia Tree Record." 1995-2021. Apr 17, 2021.
< https://selectree.calpoly.edu/tree-detail/casuarina-equisetifolia >